The age of this Paleontological site can be determined by relative methods of dating, derived from the study of the fauna and the paleomagnetism.


To date the fauna we need to find other sites with similar vertebrate species which have been dated by other methods. During the last years we have produced new paleomagnetic data in the Orce region which have permited to date these deposits with more accuracy.

In the Orce region (Baza basin, SE Spain), a long sedimentary sequence between the late Miocene and the Middle Pleistocene occurs with different paleontological sites rich in vertebrates and located at different stratigraphic levels, some of  these sites have fauna that can be compared with the fossil record of Cueva Victoria.

  1. Between the Plio-Pleistocene site of Venta Micena (1,4 milliones years) and Cueva Victoria there are some common species with biostratigraphic importance like: Canis etruscus, Mammuthus meridionalis, Equus granatensis, Stephanorhinus etruscus, Homotherium crenatidens, Megantereon sp., Pachicrocuta brevirrostris.

  2. The study of bovine and deer species in both sites is not complete, to complete it more complete material is required, especially we need skulls with horns and antlers.

  3. The study of micro-mammals in Cueva Victoria does not permit so far to come to definitive conclusions about its biostratigraphic position because all determined taxa have a wide range of distribution: Allophaiomys chalinei, Apodemus aff. mystacinus, Eliomys quercinus ssp., Castillomys crusafonti. All these species are identified in the Orce region inside early Pleistocene deposits and some have been found in the lower beds of Atapuerca (TD4).


     In Cueva Victoria there are singular species like a large horse difficult to classify with the present material and Theropithecus cf. Oswald, an African immigrant.

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